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Town and Municipality

 

- Location
- History
- Municipality in figures
- Coat of Arms and Logo of Kluczbork

 

 

 

 






 Location




Kluczbork is located in south-west part of Poland. It has been set up in place of historic insertion of route from Wrocław to Krakow and from Upper Silesia to Western Pomeranian.

- eastern geographic longitude: 18o 13' (in degrees and minutes)
- northern geographic latitude: 50o 57' (in degrees and minutes)
- the highest point of the city: 189m
- the lowest point of the city: 177m

Kluczbork is one of the most important railway knot. There is well developed net of internal roads. Through city following roads cross: 43 Katowice-Poznań; 45 Opole - Łódź. Distances:

- Opole: 45 km
- Wrocław: 100 km
- Katowice: 120 km
- Poznań: 205 km

History

- Essential facts about history
- Important dates
- Famous historical inhabitants
- Relics
- Historical roots

ESSENTIAL FACTS ABOUT HISTORY
KLUCZBORK

- Archaeological findings (stone arrowheads, axes) provide evidence that this region was settled as far back as the Stone Age (1700 b.c.). The origin of Kluczbork is connected with Chivalrous Order of the Crusaders of Red Star, which come from Palestine to Bohemia in 1217, where they beyond fight with Moslems devoted themselves to the education and care of the sick (Hospitalers). In the thirteenth century, they reached the Silesia and in 1253 they achieved from duke of Wroclaw Henry III, permission to location town under the Magdeburg Law in - so far - marketplace settlement. Since 1274 Kluczbork became the main business and administrative centre of the Kluczbork Land.
- In 1430 (during the Hussite War) Kluczbork was occupied by Hussites. The town became a target attacks by Anti-Hussite forces. As a result of negotiations Kluczbork was governed by Dukes of Oleśnica.
- In 1627 (during the Thirty Years War) Kluczbork was besieged by Union Army, which military actions caused devastation, plunder and burning the town. After ending the war, Kluczbork had a great chance for development. In years 1660-1671 the order Arians (from Poland) found shelter in Kluczbork. They organized here synods twice (1663, 1668).
- In 1675, after the death of the last Duke of Brześć, the Habsburgs took possession of Kluczbork. In 1740 Kluczbork together with Upper and Lower Silesia went to Prussia. For almost 200 years Kluczbork Land remained under Prussian reign.
In 1816 Kluczbork was made as a county town. In the first half of the 19th century the building of railway line and roads were originated, hence Kluczbork became important railway knot in the northern part of Opole district. Simultaneously, the system of education was developed . In 1858 training college for bilingual teachers (Polish and German) and in 1863 municipal high school were opened.
- Till the end of XIX century Kluczbork Land was characterized as a rural region. The beginning of the 20th century brought significant industry development. In 1905 "Famak" Machinery and Equipment Factory (metal factory) was opened. The brewery, printing house, sugar factory, brickyard, modern slaughterhouse and furniture factory were arisen.
- After the First World War the border of Weimar Republic with Poland was defined few kilometres from Kluczbork, in this way Kluczbork Land was border terrain. After Upper Silesia division in 1921, Kluczbork district has belonged to Germany, since 1933 - to the Third Reich - till 20th January 1945, when Soviet and Ukrainian armies marched into the town.
- Since 1945 (18th March), after the end the Second World War, Kluczbork has belonged to Poland.

Important dates

1253 - The Chivalrous Order of the Crusaders of Red Star achieved from the duke of Wrocław Henryk III permission to location Kluczbork under the Magdeburg Law.
1274 - The duke Henryk IV Probus took possession of Kluczbork
1341 - Kluczbork was taken over the reign of Kazimierz III the Great
1356 - Czech King Karol IV became reigning of Kluczbork
1396 - The duke Henryk von Lüben issued a document in which Kluczbork was mentioned as town with fortification (probably there was large castle - first written mention about it derived from 1581; at the end of the 17th century the castle fell into disrepair. In 1720 the castle was rebuilt into imperial administration's headquarters. In 1854 second storey was built, in 1907 former castle tower was rebuilt into "tower of pressure", receiving new roof)
1426 - Ludwig II - the Duke of Brześć - gave to the town the exclusive law for dealing in salt (which was imported from Kraków)
1428-34 - Kluczbork was occupied by Hussites, Town became a target of Anti-Hussite forces` attacks.
1503 - The Town was flooded
1523 - A plague smote the Town.
1528 - A fire severely damaged large part of Kluczbork
1553 - First mention about town hall and booths (called 12 Apostles - which survived to June 1925 when 8 of 12 was damaged by fire - At present there is situated a lawn)
1590 - New fortification was built.
1656 - Protestantism in Kluczbork; Catholic Church was converted into Evangelical Church (it was built in the middle of the 13th century by The Crusaders Order);
1660 - Origin of "municipality of Arian Order". The Order (from Poland) found shelter in Kluczbork district, where religious relationships were stabilized. Arian Order was expelled from Poland because of the Faith.
1663 and 1668 - Synods organized by the Arian Order.
1669 - The duke of Brześć Jerzy Wilhelm informed Arian, under pressure from Austrian Ruler, that it is impossible to tolerate presence the Arian Order in the Kluczbork district.
1675 - Kluczbork was taken over the reign of Austrian emperor Leopold I.
1741 - Kluczbork together with Upper and Lower Silesia went to Prussia; emperor Fryderyk the Great visited Kluczbork twice - in 1746 and 1779.
1758 - Department of post office inspection was opened in Kluczbork.
1776 - In place of burnt headquarters Order of the Crusaders of Red Star there was built Institution for the poor, it might admitted 500 people (the poor, disabled war veterans, the homeless and beggars); in 1804 hospital was opened, which in 1874 was converted into mental hospital; from 1936 till December 1939 it served as prisoner-of war camp for officers - Oflag VII A Kreuzburg; during spring 1943 it was renamed - interned persons from hostile countries to Third Reich - Ilag VII/Z
1814 - Lighting system was installed.
1816 - Kluczbork was made as a County Town.
1848 - Municipal hospital was rebuilt into post office.
1867 - Municipal gas-works was opened.
1868 - Railway line - section from Wrocław-Kluczbork-Fosowskie - was opened, in 1875 another section of railway line was opened: Kluczbork- Byczyna-Poznań, and in 1880 it was opened section via Olesno to Tarnowskie Góry
1870 - A new training college for teachers was opened (in 1926 there was grammar school, after the end the Second World War there was general education school [LO]; at present there is Adam Mickiewicz' General Education Schools Complex [ZSO])
1877 -A new high school was opened (at present there is "ZSZ" "Vocational Schools Complex; M. Curie-Skłodowska street)
1886 - The Synagogue was built in the Moorish-Roman style (it was burnt during "the Crystal Night" 9/10.11.1938)
1888 - An Evangelical and Lutheran medical institution "Betania" was opened.
1901-03 - The St. Ann Institution was erected. It consisted of orphanage, school for children and convent of Elizabeth (nuns looked after children).
1911-13 - St Mary Help of Christians' church was erected in New-Gothic style (Matki Bożej Wspomożenia Wiernych). It was modelled on Holy Cross` church in Wrocław.
1921 - After Upper Silesia division, Kluczbork Land remained under German reign (since 1933 - under The Third Reich reign).
1938 - New vocational school was opened (near insertion of Byczyńska and Sienkiewicza street).
1945 - In January Soviet and Ukrainian armies marched into town.
1945 - Since March 1945 Kluczbork has belonged to Poland.
1982-87 - Sacred He art of Jesus` church was erected (by parish it is called: New Church)
2003 - The 750th Anniversary of Kluczbork.


FAMOUS HISTORICAL INHABITANTS
From Kluczbork Land descent such famous men as:

- JAN FROM KLUCZBORK (14th century) - professor at the Krakow University
- ADAM GDACJUSZ (1610-1688) - clergyman and writer
- JAN DZIERZON (1811-1906) - priest and word-wide famous authority on bees
- GUSTAV FREYTAG (1816-1895) - well-known German writer 

Jan from Kluczbork
Jan from Kluczbork (Johannes Heldebrand de Cruceburg) was born in approximately 1370. He is one of the most outstanding person coming from Kluczbork. Jan from Kluczborka was a lecturer at Prague University. In 1404, he moved to Krakow, where studied theology course. He received doctorate of philosophy and became dean of the Philosophy and Theology Department at Krakow Academy. Jan from Kluczborka is one of the Jagiellonian Library initiators. His manuscripts are kept in Jagiellonian Library in Krakow and in Wrocław libraries. His works: sermons, lectures, speeches (especially famous speech which glorify victory of King Władysław Jagiełło over the Teutonic Knights {crusading order of knights} at the Battle of Grunwald - 15.VII.1410) have great historical significance and are extremely valuable relicts.

Adam Gdacjusz
Adam Gdacjusz was born in 1609/1610 in Kluczbork. He was Augsburg-Lutheran Protestant preacher and outstanding Silesian prose writer. Gdacjusz was called "Silesian Rej" owing to moralistic contents in his works and sermons which were written in Polish. He propagated using Polish language. Gdacjusz reproached nobility with its life style, ignorance, drunkenness, passion for luxury and inhumane treatment servant peasants. His works are valuable source of information about life style in 17th century.

Jan Dzierzon
Jan Dzierzon was born on 16th of January 1811 in Łowkowice near Kluczbork. He graduated Wrocław University in 1933 - theology. He attended courses: mathematics, astronomy, history. As a curate in Siołkowice (near Opole), Dzierzon constructed "observational beehive". He spent every leisure hour in apiary. He devoted to bees more than fifty years (from his early youth). He contributed to great progress in beekeeping. He constructed an early beehive with detachable cells, which allowed to empty the honeycombs contents without destroying them.

Dzierzon was the first who observed parthenogenesis in bees. Parthenogenesis is a form of reproduction in which an ovum develops into a new individual without having been fertilized. In bees unfertilized eggs become drones, and fertilized eggs become workers or queens. Owing to this observation Dzierzon became famous all over the world. He was an authority on bees. Dzierzon published his first work "Theory and Practice of Dr. Dzierzon" in 1848, which was followed in 1852 by an appendix. He wrote articles of Bees for various Journals. From 1854 to 1856 Dzierzon published a monthly journal "The Silesian Bee-Friend". In 1861 he published his last work "Rational Bee-keeping". Works mentioned above are significant part of Core Historical Literature of Agriculture Basic. Dzierzon was awarded many certificates of honour, and silver and gold medals; the honorary degree (Doctor) was conferred upon Dzierzon by the University of Munich in 1872; besides receiving many other distinctions, Dzierzon was decorated the Grand Ducal Hessian Order of Ludwig and the Imperial Austrian Order of Francis Joseph.

In 1959 Jan Dzierzon Museum was founded. There is permanent exhibiton related to apiculture and Jan Dzierzon. + Zdjęcie muzeum (Jan Dzierzon Museum)
The Jan Dzierzon monument was unveiled on 20 September 1981. + zdjęcie pomnika (Jan Dzierzon Monument)

Gustaw Freytag
Gustaw Freytag was a famous novelist and playwright. Freytag was born on 13th of July 1816 in Kluczbork (Kreuzburg). He wrote realistic novels celebrating the merits of the middle class. His most successful play "The Journalists" (1855) is a comedy of small-town life and politics. Best known today are his realistic novels "Soll und Haben" (1855; Debit and Credit) which include anti-Semitic and anti-Polish contents; "Die verlorene Handschrift" (1864; The Lost Manuscript) and his series of German historical novels "Die Ahnen" (1873-1881).

RELICS
In the past Kluczbork was a significant scientific and cultural centre. Kluczbork has got to nowadays traditional town planning, typical to Middle Ages Silesian town arrangement. The town was surrounded with defence walls saved to nowadays in the southern part of the Town. In Kluczbork there are few worth seeing relics.

- TOWN HALL
- ST. SAVIOUR GOTHIC CHURCH
- ST. MARY HELP OF CHRISTIANS` CHURCH
- MUSEUM
- ASSUMPTION OF THE BVM CHURCH (near Kluczbork)
- DOM KATECHETYCZNY ("RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION HOUSE")

TOWN HALL 46-200 Kluczbork, Rynek 1

Town Hall was built in the place of former marketplace in 18th century in Baroque style (but the first mention about Town Hall derived from 1553). Town Hall is located in the centre of the Town. It is surrounded with Baroque tenements. The original Town Hall was totally different. In the town centre there was Baroque complex of buildings: Town Hall and Booths called 12 Apostles. In 1925 the part of the buildings (booths) were damaged by fire - survived Town Hall and two buildings, both with two facades. Under the roof is placed bas-relief presenting pre-fire view of Town Hall with "12 Apostles". At present, in Town Hall there are located Pedagogical Library, Registry Office and restaurant "Arkadia".

ST. SAVIOUR GOTHIC CHURCH 46-200 Kluczbork, Bolesława Chrobrego St. 23 tel. (+48 77) 418-18-55

One of the most valuable architectural objects in Kluczbork is St. Saviour Gothic church, which from 1527 has belonged to protestant parish. The church was built in 14th century in the place of previous church probably built in 12th century. The décor of the interior of the church is mainly in rococo style. Whole rococo altar (white), pulpit (richly decorated with religious sculptures), font (decorated with vegetable ornaments), and organ are dated from the middle of the 13th century, and there were created by Leopold Jaschke (sculptor from Wrocław). In summer there are organized organ concerts, which are great attraction for people who like organ music. From 2003 the tower of the church serves as a view-tower, from which everyone can see the panorama of the town. It is opened during summer.
ST. MARY HELP OF CHRISTIANS` CHURCH 46-200 Kluczbork, Skłodowskiej-Curie St. 8 tel. (+48 77) 418-15-52

St. Mary Help of Christians' Church was erected in years 1911-1913 in New-Gothic style.

The church was modelled on Holy Cross' church in Wrocław. The church is located in the southern part of the Town, near town park which joins with municipal forest. The wooden main altar and pulpit were created in Schreiner's atelier in Munich, side altars were created by Frillhase (sculpture from Efrurt), exquisite stained glasses (presenting saints) were created in studio of Linnemann from Frankfurt by the river Men. The wooden equipment of church was created by carpenters from Żóławina Wrocławska. The church was consecrated on 1st of June 1913 by cardinal - Jerzy Kopp from Wrocław.

MUSEUM

ASSUMPTION OF THE BVM

The really rarity relic is the wooden Assumption of the BVM' church in Bąków (near Kluczbork). It was erected in 16th century. There is the biggest and the oldest Gothic triptych in the whole Silesia, which was created about 1370 as altar relating to the cult of the Virgin Mary. Behind this triptych there are wooden epitaphs (300-years) dedicated to Elizabeth von Frankenberg.

DOM KATECHETYCZNY 46-200 Kluczbork, Katowicka St.

"Religious instruction House" was erected in 1823 in the place of former wooden Holy Trinity' church (called "cementery chapel") dated from the Middle Ages. Near this church there was located the oldest churchyard, which has been used since the founding the Town till 1886. Initially it was SS Piotr and Paweł' church. At present, the building serves as religious instruction house which belongs to St. Mary Help of Christians' parish. HISTORICAL ROOTS
If you have been looking for yor ancestor in Kluczbork, try contact with:
Registry Office (USC)
46-200 Kluczbork, Rynek 1 (Town Hall)
tel. (+48 77) 418-11-50
office hour:
Monday: 8 a.m. - 4 p.m.
Tuesday - Friday: 7 a.m. - 3 p.m.


Municipality in figures

total area: 217 sq. kilometres
Kluczbork: 12 sq. kilometres
agricultural land: 205 sq. kilometres
villages: 49
population (10.02.2004): 39283 (town 26536)
population density: 184 p/sq. kilometres
birth-rate in Kluczbork: 0,07%
hospitals in Kluczbork: 1
permanent cinemas in Kluczbork: 1
Natural conditions:
average temperatures: 8,0 - 8,3oC
precipitation: 410-839 mm
natural resources: lack


Coat of Arms and Logo of Kluczbork
Kluczbork's Coat of Arms + herb At present, Kluczbork's Coat of Arms is a imagine of red castle with three towers crowned with battlements and located on the cornice. The middle tower is the highest and below it there is a gateway with yellow opened doors. Over the battlements of lower towers and in the middle of the highest tower there are black crosses. Background is white. Kluczbork's Logo + logo Kluczbork's Logo was created in 2004 by artist Józef Zając. Kluczbork's Flag + flaga The Town's Flag is a rectangular piece of cloth in the width to length ratio 5:8. The flag is divided into two horizontal strips. Upper strip is wide (includes the narrow strip 6,5 times) and red, lower strip is narrow and white. In the central part of the upper red strip there is located imagine (in Late-Gothic style) of the Kluczbork's coat of arms. The Kluczbork Days are in June. 2003 In 2003 Kluczbork celebrated the 750th Anniversary of location the Town. www.kluczbork.pl/galeria/galeria_750.php 2004 www.kluczbork.pl/galeria/galeria_dk2004.php 2005 24th -26th June


 

At present, Kluczbork's Coat of Arms is a imagine of red castle with three towers crowned with battlements and located on the cornice. The middle tower is the highest and below it there is a gateway with yellow opened doors. Over the battlements of lower towers and in the middle of the highest tower there are black crosses. Background is white.

Kluczbork's Logo was created in 2004 by artist Józef Zając.

Kluczbork's Flag

The Town's Flag is a rectangular piece of cloth in the width to length ratio 5:8. The flag is divided into two horizontal strips. Upper strip is wide (includes the narrow strip 6,5 times) and red, lower strip is narrow and white. In the central part of the upper red strip there is located imagine (in Late-Gothic style) of the Kluczbork's coat of arms.

The Kluczbork Days are in June.

2003 - In 2003 Kluczbork celebrated the 750th Anniversary of location the Town. www.kluczbork.pl/galeria/galeria_dk2004.php
2005 - 24th -26th June

 

       
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